Sisi ni Nani


Historical Background:

  • The present Musoma Municipal started way back in the late years of 19th Century as German fortification point. The name Musoma was derived from a local dialect which literally can be translated as a promontory.
  • After the British took over from the German rule the role of Musoma changed to administrative and service centered roles which are practiced today.
  • The Musoma settlement expanded faster and in 1963 it assumed Township status and on 01st July, 2005 was promoted to a status of Municipality. Musoma is one of the six administrative districts in Mara Region.
  • Historically Musoma district carry a big history of the Country because here is where the late father of the nation Mwl Julius Kambarage Nyerere was born in Butiama on 13th April 1922.
  • He also got part of his primary education at Mwisenge Primary School from 20th April 1934 to 1st April 1936 and then moved to Tabora Secondary School in Tabora region.

Geographical Location:

  • Musoma Municipality is the head quarter of Mara region in The United Republic of Tanzania. It covers approximately 63 square kilometers. The Municipality sits on the eastern edge of Lake Victoria, close to the International borders of Tanzania with Kenya and Uganda.
  • The town is located approximately 225 kilometers, by road, northeast of Mwanza, the nearest large city.
  • Musoma lies approximately 480 kilometers, by road, northwest of Arusha, the location of the headquarters of the East African Community.
  • The coordinates of Musoma are: 1°30'0.00"S, 33°48'0.00"E (Latitude:-1.5000; Longitude:33.800

The Map showing Musoma Municipal Council Location

Musoma Municipality Aerial View.

Climatic Condition:

  • Musoma Municipal area experiences a tropical type of climate with temperature ranging from 240C to 320C. High temperature are recorded in the months of September, October and November when the mean maximum temperatures reach up to 31.60C.
  • On the other hand minimum temperatures are experienced in the months of June, July and August when temperatures go down about 15.000C averages.
  • Rainfall pattern is bi-modal which ranges from 900-1200mm per annum. The short rainfall season starts from October to December while the long rains are from March to June.

Soils and Geology:

  • Geologically, Musoma Municipality is a flat sheet of dark grey basalt associated with metavolcanic rocks. The rocks belong to pre-Cambrian age forming a base for the formation of younger rocks. Musoma urban area consist of granite granodiorite foliated gneisses and magnetite.
  • Southern highlands: This part occupies the areas of Bunda and Serengeti districts in the south - western part of the region. It consists of mainly volcanic rocks of alkaline basalt, trachyte, nephelinite and pyroclastic. The volcanic rocks are bonded with iron stone.


  • According to the 2012 Population and Housing Census, Musoma Municipal Council had a total population of 134,327 inhabitants of which 62,694 were males and 71,633 females. This accounted for about 14.8% of the total regional population.
  • The average household size is 4.9.
  • The annual rate of population growth in Musoma Municipality was 2.2 percent.
  • The population however increased by only 24% (26,085) that is from 108,242 to 134,327 in a period of ten years.
  • The following chart shows the population trend in Musoma Municipal since 1967.

Population Growth Trend in Musoma Municipal.

Mission, vision and Core values.

  • Mission: “To provide adequate social economic services in order to raise living standard of its people using efficient own resource through transparency” With this Musoma Municipal Council is committed to the delivery of high quality serviced land through stakeholders’ involvement in decision making, planning, implementation and evaluation of development projects so as to achieve good urban governance.
  • Vision: “Accountable Council capable of providing sustainable services and development to entire community” the council is prepared for creating better environment for its people to take off the economic chances existing and that will exist via a modified investment profile.
  • Core values: objectivity, excellence, integrity, people’s focus and Innovation adds up prosperity in Industrial investment and growth in the town.

Administrative setting.

  • Musoma Municipal Council is led by the Full Council headed by a chairperson elected among the councilors. The local Member of Parliament also attend council meeting. The chief executive is the Municipal Director who is assisted by 13 heads of department namely: - Education, Health, Agriculture and Cooperatives, Livestock and Fisheries, Works, Community Development, Urban Planning and Lands, Natural Resources and Tourism, Commerce and Finance, and Economic and Trade.
  • The council is also made up of three Standing Committees consisting of elected and appointed members namely:

Finance and Administration Committee.

Town Planning, Land and Natural Resources Committee.

Education, Health and Community Development Committee.

Infrastructure development.

  • Musoma is conveniently accessible through road network, marine and air transport services.
  • There is potential for railway and the exploration is currently underway to invest in rail.
  • The convenient location of Musoma along the Lake Victoria connects it to neighboring countries of Kenya and Uganda; it is well linked to other urban centres by both surface and air transport services.
  • A tarmac road links the Municipality to Musoma Rural district, Mwanza City and Sirari (Kenyan border). Also the municipality is linked by water transport to Mwanza City, Bukoba Municipality, Kisumu (Kenya), and Entebbe (Uganda). Musoma is also connected by air to Dar via Kilimanjaro and Mwanza.

The following Map shows transport system in Musoma Municipality.

Map showing transport system in Musoma Municipality.


General Overview:

  • Up to 1990s, the economy of Musoma Municipal Council depended on industries. In 1970s industries started to locate in Musoma; the first was the soft drink factory (Vimto) and Mara Dairy and later a Textile factory (MUTEX) with a capacity of employing 4,000 people. However in 1980s the Municipal saw the collapse of all the Industries until mid-1990s when one fish-processing factory started.
  • The Municipal has potentials to enhance its economy especially after the inauguration of East African Community due to its strategic location and closeness to the borders of both Kenya and Uganda.
  • Currently, the Municipal economy largely depends on fishing and agriculture activities. Major Economic Activities in which the labour force is engaged include: Fishing, Agriculture, Livestock keeping, Tourism, Industry, Commerce and Trade, Mining, Forestry and Bee keeping.

1: Fishing.

  • Fishing is among the major economic activities in Musoma Municipality with average production of 58,933 tons of fish annually. Fishing species caught in Musoma are tilapia, Nile perch, fish fingers and haplochromis.
  • Fishing contributes about 28% of the Municipal revenue.
  • Fishing activities especially using modern fishing tools like improved fishing gear and canoe motorization with outboard engines is recommended so as to full utilize the resources in the Lake Victoria.

The following photography shows sardine packaging activities taking place along the Lake Victoria shores in Musoma Municipal.

The following photography shows the packaged sardines ready to be transported to market places:

Challenges Facing Fishing Sector in Musoma Municipal.

  • Despite the significant contribution of the fishing industry into the Municipal economy, most of the fishermen employ traditional fishing gear using low technology and therefore their catchment are normally low.
  • Inadequate investment in fishing activities.
  • Lack of permanent commercial storage facilities.
  • Lack of reliable market for fish products.

2: Agriculture.

  • In Musoma Municipality agriculture is the main economic activity which employs the majority of the labour force. The climate offers favorable conditions for agriculture. The rainfall is generally adequate and reliable. The sector contributes about 30 percent of the GDP of Musoma Municipal Council.
  • The main crops grown in the area include cassava, sorghum, maize, sweet potatoes, beans, and rice, paddy and horticulture crops.
  • Farmers depend largely on the Musoma main market and other small market centres in urban peripherals of the nine wards for the selling of their farm produces.

Challenges facing agriculture sector in Musoma Municipal

  • Increased pests and disease infestation.
  • Poor farming practices: majority of farmers do not practice modern agricultural technology because of the high cost of inputs.
  • Urbanization-resulting into decrease of farm land.
  • Lack of trained labour and farm inputs, weak agro-industries and poor linkages in marketing, processing and production chains as well as weak farmers’ organization.
  • The lack of credits to support agricultural production also hampers output, especially that of rural, small-holders.

3: Livestock keeping.

  • Musoma Municipal Council has a potential of keeping almost all types of domestic animals because of its favorable good weather, availability of compounded feeding materials, and of grazing land around the municipality.
  • There are two main types of livestock breeds in Musoma Municipal;

Exotic livestock breeds

Indigenous livestock breeds.

4: Tourism.

Musoma Municipal Council has a number of tourist attractions ranging from beaches, Lake Victoria, Mukendo hill, culture and life style of Musoma people, different species of birds along lake shore, Mwisenge primary school where the late first President of Tanzania Mwl Julius Kambarage Nyerere got part of his primary education.

A view of Lake Victoria from Mukendo hills.

5: Industry.

  • Musoma has almost a whole spectrum of types of industries ranging from small, medium to large scale. Most of them are engaged in food and milk processing, metal works and wood works.
  • There existed other large scale industries like PCL Fish factory, Musoma Dairy Ltd, Musoma Textile Industry, Musoma Oil Ltd, Mara Milk Ltd, and Isopack paper industry, which are currently out of operation.
  • Currently there are 4 large industries operating (New Musoma Textile, Prime catch Export Ltd, Musoma fish processor and Mara Milk) and 6 medium industries which deals in processing agro – products.
  • There are also various small scale and service industries such as milling machines and timber processing industries distributed sparsely throughout the municipality.
  • The industries are located in industrial areas in Makoko, Baruti, Bweri and Mwisenge.

6: Commerce and Trade

  • This is an important economic sector which employs many Municipal residents. The sector ranges from wholesale to retail trade. Wholesale trade is located in prime commercial areas in the Central Business District and along Mukendo Street. There are two markets namely Central Market and Mwigobero market. Others are neighborhood markets at Nyasho, and Kamunyonge.
  • Commercial activities are growing, ranging from street vending activities, small kiosks, retail shops, guest houses, hair cutting salons, restaurants, hotels, groceries, bars, night clubs and other informal income generating activities including food vending.
  • Trade and market operations accounts to 26.49% of the Municipal revenue.

The Photography showing the Selling of second hand clothes at Nyasho market.

7: Mining

  • Mining is practiced in a small scale. The minerals available are mainly building and construction materials including sand, stone and gravel.
  • The Municipal Council has 20 mining sites.
  • The main activities related to the mining are exploration, digging and grinding of stones.
  • Mining and quarrying activities make important contributions to the towns’ economy in terms of source of individual’s income; employment and building materials.

8: Bee keeping

  • Musoma Municipality has a potential for bee keeping.
  • At present this sector is under developed due to lack of know-how and modern technology in bee-keeping.
  • Currently, the bee keeping is locally practiced by few bee hives.

Picture showing bee keeping activities at Bweri forest.

Employment Structure.

  • Employment structure of Musoma labour force is composed of various sectors ranging from agriculture, small businesses, fishing, mechanical and construction works, electrical and IT as well as public sector.
  • Informal sector is growing as a major employing sector of youth and women.

The following graph shows the percentage of people engaging in different sector of employment.

Income Distribution and Composition.

The per capita income for Musoma residents is Tshs. 1,090, 000 per annum.

The Municipal council is the main public sector responsible for economic development of the town.

Out of its total annual budget, 72% is grant from the central government, 13% from Donor/NGOs agencies, 13% own resources and 02% from Community contribution.


  • Education and healthcare are essential community facilities which are available in Musoma Municipal in meeting community needs and demands. Other community facilities available in Musoma Municipal are like administration, police and judiciary, library services, religious facilities, cultural facilities and cemeteries.
  • Education facilities in Musoma Municipality are divided into Pre-Primary Education, Primary Education, Secondary Education, Vocational Education and Higher Learning Education. Other education facilities in the city include Adult Education, Distant Education, and Post Primary Technical Centers. Almost all types of education facilities found in the city belong to either Public or Private Institutions.
  • Musoma Municipal Council has a total of 27 health facilities of which 21 are dispensaries, 5 are health centers 1 hospitals and one private laboratory. Health facilities in the municipality are managed by various agencies, including government, parastatals, Non-Governmental and voluntary agencies, various religious and private charitable groups.


  • Water, sanitation and electricity are essential utilities which are also provided in Musoma Municipal to meet domestic, institutional, commercial and industrial demands.
  • Musoma Water Supply and Sanitation Authority (MUWASA) is a fully autonomous public water utility responsible for the overall operation and management of water supply and sanitation services in the Musoma Municipality. The authority relies on the Lake Victoria as it’s solely source of water.
  • Electricity supply in Musoma Municipal is distributed by Tanzania Electricity Cooperation (TANESCO) and it is fully responsible for electricity supply.


1. Industrial Sector.

  • Although the sector has not been performing as expected, there are opportunities for improving industrial development in Musoma Municipality. These include investment opportunities for agro processing, food and beverage processing industries. Other agro-based industries worth investing in are Textile, Fish industries, Cooking oil refineries, Tanneries and animal feed industries.
  • With the recent inauguration of East African Community coupled with the fact that Musoma Municipality is very close to the borders of both Kenya and Uganda, the industrial sector is best placed to enhance the town’s economy.

2. Livestock.

  • Dairy Farming, poultry and jiggery are common agricultural activities in Musoma Municipality.
  • Some livestock is a constant source of income to the residents while others are raised for their meat, milk and eggs consumption.
  • In Musoma Municipality there is no quality abattoir despite the existing of big number of cattle in the district and those slaughtered for local consumption. Abattoir is one key area in Musoma for investment opportunity.

3. Tourism.

  • Musoma is one of unique destinations in Tanzania, with beautiful lake shore scenery, topography and very friendly people. It is about 80 km from the famous Serengeti National park, the geographical provide Musoma with excellent environment for investors in tourism industry.
  • The tourism industry in Musoma has excellent investment opportunities in construction and management of hotels, lodges, restaurants, aviation projects, training institutions, tour operation, travel agencies and marketing organization however, in the Musoma Municipality there is no a recognized tourism activities though there are a lot of tourist attraction.    

4. Agriculture

  • Cultivation of green vegetables, tomato and cassava in Musoma Municipality is one of resident’s active economic activities.
  •  The Municipal has a potential arable land of about 1020 hectares mainly for small scale farming. However, out of the area only 520 hectares are under cultivation annually.
  • The Municipal has a high potential area suitable for irrigation. The presence of Lake Victoria provides an opportunity for irrigation using water from the lake. Most of the horticulture activities are practiced along the Lake so as to take opportunity of the irrigation activities.
  • One of Musoma Strategy is to ensure tomato, cassava and other green vegetables are processed to attract its market and high prices.

4. Fishing.

  • There is a potential of investing in fish farming, which is currently underutilized for business purposes.
  •  In addition, fishing has great potential for expansion and generation of employment and income and therefore a major source of revenue to the council apart from being good source of protein to the community.
  • Practicing Aquaculture farming that will help to improve the quality and quantity of fish and their products.

5. EAC common Market.

Under EAC common market, member states are free to move goods, services among themselves. So investing in Musoma Municipal being close to member state countries, gives opportunity to an investors to easily involve into international business and enjoying the economies of scale.